- © 2014 Mineralogical Society of America
Synchrotron sources provide X-radiation with high energy and high brilliance that are well suited for high-pressure (HP) research. Powerful micron-sized sampling probes of high energy radiation have been widely used to interact with minute samples through the walls of pressure vessels, to investigate material properties in situ under HP. Since the late 1970s, HP synchrotron research has become a fast growing field. Of mineralogical interests are the abilities for studying structure, elasticity, phase stability/transition, and transport properties of minerals and melts at pressure-temperature conditions corresponding to the deep Earth.
The most commonly used HP apparatus are the diamond anvil cell (DAC), the large volume press (LVP), and the shock wave devices. The DAC is capable of generating pressures beyond 4 megabar (1 megabar = 100 GPa) but is limited to small samples, typically less than 10 microns in linear dimensions at the highest pressures. The pressure-temperature (P-T) range accessible in the DAC exceeds conditions corresponding the center of the Earth. The LVP is capable of modest pressures (currently less than 100 GPa), but the large sample volume permits a wider variety of bulk physical properties to be measured. The P-T range accessible in the LVP corresponds to those in the Earth’s lower mantle. In shock wave experiments, the sample is subjected to high pressures and temperatures by dynamic processes. Multi-megabar to tera-pascal (TPa) pressures may be generated but for short durations from nano- to femto-seconds (10−9–10−15 s).
In this chapter, we begin with synchrotron techniques that are important for HP research, followed by a review of high pressure apparatus and their integration with synchrotron X-ray techniques. We refer readers to the following review articles related to HP synchrotron techniques (Chen et al. 2005; Duffy 2005; Hemley et al. 2005; Wang …