Table 1

Volcanic plume CO2 fluxes from persistently degassing volcanoes (alphabetically ordered by country)

VolcanoLocationCO2 Flux (t/d)CO2 Flux (Mt/yr)MethodDateReference
ErebusAntarctica1,9300.70Airborne Li-CORDec 1997, Dec 1999, Jan 2001Wardell et al. (2004)
ErebusAntarctica1,3300.49Ground-based OP-FTIR and scanning UV spectrometerDec 2004Oppenheimer & Kyle (2008)
VillarricaChile4770.17Ground-based OP-FTIR and airborne UV spectrometer traversesMar 2009Sawyer et al. (2011)
GalerasColombia1,0200.37High temp. summit fumarole sampling and COSPEC1989–1995Zapata et al. (1997)
NyiragongoDR Congo95,50034.86Direct sampling with video footage of plume dimensions and rise rate1959, 1972Le Guern (1987)
NyiragongoDR Congo9,3203.40Ground-based OP-FTIR and UV spectrometer vehicle traversesMay/Jun 2005, Jan 2006Sawyer et al. (2008a)
Sierra NegraEcuador (Galápagos)3940.14Ground-based multi-gas sensor and UV spectrometer walking traversesJun–Jul 2006Padron et al. (2012)
Erta AleEthiopia540.02Based on heat budget calculations1971, 1973, 1974Le Guern et al. (1979)
Erta AleEthiopia600.02Ground-based OP-FTIR and UV spectrometer walking traverses15 Oct 2005Sawyer et al. (2008b)
GrímsvötnIceland5320.19Sampling of subglacial crater lake1954–1991Agustdottir & Brantley (1994)
MerapiIndonesia2400.09High temp. dome fumarole sampling and routine SO2 flux measurementsToutain et al. (2009)
EtnaItaly35,00012.8Plume sampling or airborne IR analysers and ground-based and airborne COSPEC;1977–1984Allard et al. (1991)
EtnaItaly9,0003.29Ground-based multi-gas (Voragine and NE) and UV spectrometer vehicle traversesSept 2004–Sept 2005Aiuppa et al. (2006)
EtnaItaly5,0901.86Ground-based multi-gas (Voragine) and UV spectrometer vehicle traversesMay 2005–Nov 2006Aiuppa et al. (2008)
StromboliItaly4,3501.59Fumarole and quiescent plume sampling and airborne COSPEC1980–1993Allard et al. (1994)
StromboliItaly1,0730.39Ground-based OP-FTIR automated UV spectrometer network9 Apr 2002 (IR) 2006 (UV)Burton et al. (2007a,b)
StromboliItaly5500.20Ground-based multi-gas sensor and automated UV spectrometer networkSept 2008–Jul 2010Aiuppa et al. (2011)
VulcanoItaly4200.15Ground-based multi-gas measurement and UV spectrometer vehicle traversesDec 2004Aiuppa et al. (2005)
VulcanoItaly1700.06UAV mounted electrochemical sensors and UV spectrometerApr 2007McGonigle et al. (2008)
VulcanoItaly3620.13High temp. fumarole sampling and UV spectrometer vehicle traversesSept 2007Inguaggiato et al. (2012)
MiyakejimaJapan14,5005.29Airborne Li-COR, SO2 electrochemical sensor or pulsed fluorescence SO2 analyzer and COSPEC2000–2001Shinohara et al. (2003)
Satsuma-IwojimaJapan1000.04High temp. fumarole sampling and COSPEC;Oct 1999Shimoike et al. (2002)
PopocatépetlMexico9,0003.29Airborne Li-COR ladder surveysJun 1995Gerlach et al. (1997)
PopocatépetlMexico40,00014.6Airborne Li-COR ladder surveys1996–1998Delgado et al. (1998)
PopocatépetlMexico38,00013.87Passive OP-FTIR and COSPECFeb 1998Goff et al. (2001)
Soufrière HillsMontserrat1,4680.54Ground-based multi-gas sensor and automated UV spectrometer networkJul 2008Edmonds et al. (2010)
White IslandNew Zealand9500.35High temp. fumarole sampling and airborne COSPEC1982–1984Rose et al. (1986)
White IslandNew Zealand2,6100.95Airborne Li-COR ladder surveyJan 1998Wardell et al. (2001)
MasayaNicaragua2,9401.07Ground-based OP-FTIR and COSPEC vehicle traverses1998–1999Burton et al. (2000)
MasayaNicaragua9300.34Ground-based OP-FTIR and UV spectrometer vehicle traversesMar 2009Martin et al. (2010)
KudryavyRussia500.02Fumarole sampling and ground-based COSPECAug 1995Fischer et al. (1998)
BezymiannyRussia9900.37Dome fumarole sampling and FLYSPEC ground-based scanning and airborne traversesAug 2007, Jul 2009Lopez et al. (in press)
GorelyRussia6600.24Ground-based multi-gas measurement and UV camera6 Sept 2011Aiuppa et al. (2012)
Oldoinyo LengaiTanzania6,6302.42Airborne Li-COR measurementsJun 1994Brantley & Koepenick (1995)
AugustineUSA1,7600.64Restored gas samples and COSPEC1986–1987Symonds et al. (1992)
DouglasUSAtracetraceAirborne Li-COR measurements2000–2006Doukas & McGee (2007)
GriggsUSAnot detectednot detectedAirborne Li-COR measurement1 Jul 2002Doukas & McGee (2007)
IliamnaUSA1310.05Airborne Li-COR measurements1996–2005Doukas & McGee (2007)
Kīlauea, Pu′u ′Ō′ōUSA3,9501.45Airborne closed-path FTIR15 Feb 1984, 4 Mar 1984Greenland et al. (1985)
Kīlauea, Pu′u ′Ō′ōUSA3000.11Airborne Li-COR, closed-path FTIR and COSPEC19 Sept 1995Gerlach et al. (1998)
Kīlauea, Pu′u ′Ō′ōUSA3960.14Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)26 Apr 2000Spinetti et al. (2008)
Kīlauea summitUSA1,6000.58Airborne closed-path FTIR13 Feb 1984Greenland et al. (1985)
Kīlauea summitUSA8,5003.10Ground-based Li-COR, closed-path FTIR and COSPEC20 Sept 1995, 20 Oct 1998, 6 May 1999Gerlach et al. (2002)
Kīlauea summitUSA4,9001.79Ground-based Li-COR, Interscan electrochemical SO2 analyzer and COSPEC;Jun–Jul 2003Hager et al. (2008)
MageikUSA3410.12Airborne Li-COR measurements2000–2006Doukas & McGee (2007)
MartinUSA560.02Airborne Li-COR measurements1998–2006Doukas & McGee (2007)
Mt. BakerUSA1870.07Airborne Li-COR measurement13 Sept 2000McGee et al. (2001)
Mt. BakerUSA1500.05Airborne Li-COR measurement2007Werner et al. (2009)
PeulikUSAnot detectednot detectedAirborne Li-COR measurement24 May 1998Doukas & McGee (2007)
ReboubtUSA180.01Airborne Li-COR measurements1997–2005Doukas & McGee (2007)
SpurrUSA6330.23Airborne Li-COR measurements2004–2006Doukas & McGee (2007)
Spurr Crater PeakUSA3340.12Airborne Li-COR measurements1996–2006Doukas & McGee (2007)
Ukinrek MaarsUSA1870.07Airborne Li-COR measurement24 May 1998Doukas & McGee (2007)
VeniaminofUSAnot detectednot detectedAirborne Li-COR measurement2 Aug 2003Doukas & McGee (2007)
AmbrymVanuatu20,0007.30Multi-gas sensor & airborne UV spectrometer traverses2007Allard et al. (2009)
YasurVanuatu8400.31Ground-based multi-gas sensor and UV spectrometer vehicle traverses21 Oct 2007Métrich et al. (2011)