Table 3

Diffuse CO2 emissions from historically active volcanoes (alphabetically ordered by country)

VolcanoCountryCO2 soil gas flux (t/yr)Dissolved CO2 flux (t/yr)Reference
ErebusAntarctica14,600Wardell et al. (2003)
Sierra NegraEcuador (Galápagos)220,825Padron et al. (2012)
Santa AnaEl Salvador59,130Salazar et al. (2004)
Nea KameniGreece5,621Chiodini et al. (1998)
NisyrosGreece24,784Caliro et al. (2005)
Hengill volcanic systemIceland165,345Hernández et al. (2012)
Krafla geothermal systemIceland84,000Ármannsson et al. (2007)
Reykjanes volcanic sys.Iceland12,660Óskarsson & Fridriksson (2011)
MerapiIndonesia78,475Toutain et al. (2009)
EtnaItaly1,000,000250,000D’Alessandro et al. (1997)
IschiaItaly468,9409,461Pecoraiano et al. (2005)
PantelleriaItaly361,00034,000Favara et al. (2001)
Solfatara, Campi FlegreiItaly556,260Chiodini et al. (2001)
StromboliItaly82,125Carapezza & Federico (2000)
VesuvioItaly55,115Frondini et al. (2004)
VulcanoItaly41,9752,190Inguaggiato et al. (2012)
Miyakejima (Oyama)Japan43,618Hernández et al.(2001a)
Satsuma-IwojimaJapan7,300Shimoike et al. (2002)
Showa-ShinzanJapan3,760Hernández et al. (2006)
UsuJapan60,712Hernández et al.(2001b)
PopocatépetlMexiconot detectedVarley & Armienta (2001)
Cerro NegroNicaragua1,022,000Salazar et al. (2001)
Masaya calderaNicaragua630,720Pérez et al (2000)
Masaya, ComalitoNicaragua6,935Chiodini et al. (2005)
RabaulPapua New Guineau876,000Pérez et al. (1998)
FurnasPortugal9,358Cruz et al. (1999)
Oldoinyo LengaiTanzania36,432Koepenick et al. (1996)
TeideTenerife38,83664,605Hernández et al. (2000); Marrero et al. (2008)
LassenUSA35,0007,600Rose & Davisson (1996)
Mt. ShastaUSA8,500Rose & Davisson (1996)
Ukinrek MaarsUSA11,8631,095Evans et al. (2009)
Total (t/yr)6,004,031386,809
Total (Mt/yr)6.000.39