Table 4

A simplified list of planetary materials and examples of HSE studies applied to them.

Meteorite Type (asteroidal, unless stated)Sub-divisionsTypical mode of originEarliest Time of formationExamples of HSE and Os isotope studies
Primitive meteorites (witnessed limited/no igneous differentiation)
Chondrite*Ordinary (H, L, LL) [~85% of all meteorite finds]“Cosmic sedimentation”Early Solar SystemWalker et al. (2002); Horan et al. (2003, 2009); Brandon et al. (2005a,b); Fischer-Godde et al. (2010); Archer et al. (2014)
Carbonaceous (CI, CM, CR, CB, CH, CV, CO, CV) [~5%]“Cosmic sedimentation”Early Solar System
Enstatite EH, EL) [~2%]“Cosmic sedimentation”Early Solar System
Ungrouped, Rumuruti or Kakangari-Type“Cosmic sedimentation”Early Solar System
Chondrite-impact melt rocks-Impacts of chondrite asteroidsEarly to lateNorman and Mittlefehldt (2002)
Winonaites-Metamorphism of chondritesEarly Solar System
Iron and stony-iron meteorites
Iron meteoritesPrimitive Irons (e.g., IAB, IIE, IIICD)Partial melt differentiated core?Early Solar System
Magmatic Irons (e.g., IAB, IC, IIAB, IIC, IID, IIE, IIIAB, IIICD, IIIE, IIIF, IVA, IVB)Early asteroidal Fe–Ni coreEarly Solar SystemWalker et al. (2008); McCoy et al. (2011)
Stony-iron meteoritesPallasitesDifferentiation: core–mantle material?Early Solar SystemShen et al. (1998); Lee et al. (2006)
MesosideritesDifferentiated metal-rich materialsEarly Solar SystemShen et al. (1998)
Partially melted achondrites
Acapulcoite-Lodranites-Partially melted rocks (~<5 to >20%)4563 ± 2 Ma
Ureilites-Melt residuesEarly Solar SystemRankenburg et al. (2007; 2008)
Brachinites-Melt residue after <30% partial melting4565 ± 1 MaDay et al. (2012b)
Ungrouped achondritese.g., **Finds LEW 88763, NWA 6693)VariableVariableDay et al. (2015b)
Partially melted achondrites (cont’d)
Brachinite-like achondrites-Melt residuesEarly Solar SystemDay et al. (2012b)
GRA 06128/9-Melt from brachinite parent body4567 ± 1 MaDay et al. (2009)
Achondrites from differentiated planetary bodies
AubritesEnstatite achondrite meteoritesMelted and crystallized igneous rocksEarly Solar Systemvan Acken et al. (2012)
AngritesSlowly-cooledCrystallized melts and cumulatesEarly Solar SystemRiches et al. (2012); Dale et al. (2012)
Fast-cooledCrystallized meltsRiches et al. (2012); Dale et al. (2012)
HED meteorites (4 Vesta?)HowarditesBreccias from eucrites/diogenitesEarly Solar SystemDale et al. (2012)
EucritesExtrusive and intrusive basalts/doleritesDale et al. (2012)
DiogenitesIntrusive rocks and possible mantleDay et al. (2012a); Dale et al. (2012)
Martian Meteorites (Mars)ShergottitesExtrusive and intrusive igneous rocks200–500 million yearsBrandon et al. (2000, 2012); Warren et al. (1999); Jones et al. (2003)
NakhlitesIntrusive or extrusive wehrlites1.3 Ga
ChassignitesIntrusive or extrusive dunite1.3 Ga
ALH 84001Intrusive orthopyroxenite4.1 Ga
NWA 7074Impact/regolith breccia4.4 GaGoderis et al. (2014)
Lunar meteorites (Moon)Unbrecciated basalticExtrusive basalts3–4.4 billion yearsDay et al. (2007); Day and Walker (2015)
Feldspathic-dominated brecciasDominantly anorthositic crustal brecciasWarren et al. (1989); Puchtel et al. (2008)
Basalt-dominated brecciasBreccias from mare basalt regionsWarren et al. (1989)
Apollo and Luna mission samples
Apollo 11High-Ti mare basaltsExtrusive basalts
Apollo 12Low- to high-Ti mare basaltsExtrusive basaltsDay and Walker (2015)
Apollo 14Mare basalts, impact melt rocksPuchtel et al. (2008)
Apollo 15Low-Ti mare basalts, crustal rocksDay et al. (2007); Day and Walker (2015)
Apollo 16Crustal rocks, impact melt rocksFischer-Godde and Becker (2012)
Apollo 17High-Ti mare basalts, impact melt rocksDay et al. (2007); Day and Walker (2015)
Luna 16, 20, 24Basalts, crustal rocks
  • Notes:

  • * Carbonaceous chondrites are named after type meteorites Ivuna-type (CI), Mighei-type (CM), Renazzo-type (CR), Bencubbin-type (CB), ALHA 85085-type (CH), Vigarano-type (CV), Ornans-type (CO), Karoonda-type (CK). H, L and LL in enstatite and ordinary chondrites stand for high, low, and very-low metal, respectively. Petrologic types for chondrites range from 1 to 6, representing thermal equilibration (in ºC) of 1 = -50 to < 20; 2 = < 20 to 250; 3 = 250 to 600; 4 = 600 to 700; 5 = 700 to 800; 6 = 800 to ~950. Carbonaceous chondrites range from petrological types 1–3 [Except CK = 3–6], ordinary and enstatite from 3 to 6. Chondrules in chondrites are formed by flash-heating at 1770–2120 K and rapid cooling (hours). Chondrite matrix = olivine, low-/high-Ca pyroxene, oxides, sulphides, metal, phyllosilicates, carbonates.